Clowns and Class

I recently attended the Subverting Fashion conference at St. Mary’s University, and saw a brilliant and entertaining range of papers that will inform my posts for the rest of the summer. I will start with Yvonne Augustin’s discussion of clown costume, with particular emphasis … Continue reading

Spider-Man Sews: How the hyper-masculine superhero emerges from the feminine and domestic act of costuming

Superheroes represent a hyper-masculinised stereotype. They are characterised by masculine traits of physical strength and muscular physiques, along with aggressive tendencies (manifested in their physical, combative engagement with villains). An equally important aspect of the superhero genre is the costume. … Continue reading

Cosplay, Spectacle and Spectatorship

The numerous cosplay photography archives that litter the web have provided the world with images of some fantastic costumes. ‘Participatory fandom’ is becoming increasingly mainstream [1], and nowhere is fandom more overtly expressed than in costume.

These online archives are not only evidence of the act of costuming, but also of the importance of recording costume events. Attendees at events like Comic Con may take the role of cosplayer or spectator, and both are equally as important to the fan community. Rauch and Bolton argues that ‘the cosplayer is really only half the equation: the other half is the cameraman (or woman), and there is a strong sense that the photograph is the privileged end product of the entire enterprise’ [2]. The spectator is a voyeur, and a record-keeper, enjoying and preserving the spectacle.

As in fashion photography, there is an ‘underlying assumption that the clothes exist to be photographed as much as to be worn’ [3]. Cosplayers have invested time, money and effort on their costumes, and are keen to preserve this demonstration of their devotion to a source text.

A cosplayer dressed as Black Widow poses for the camera.

A cosplayer dressed as Black Widow poses for the camera.

The term ‘cosplay’ does not solely refer to the wearing of a costume. The ‘costume’ is only one half of the story – ‘play’ (or ‘role-play’) being the other. Photographs can preserve both the costume and the role-play, often in the form of a complete recreation of a frame from a comic or film.  This act becomes a collaboration between cosplayer and photographer, as they stage a replica of a fictional scene.

superman shirt cosplay

Cosplayers pose ‘in character’, recreating a narrative from source texts. This demonstration of fandom is a collaboration between photographer and cosplayer, who must both have accurate knowledge of the source text to achieve authenticity.

Posing for pictures in this way grants fans closer involvement with the source text. It provides opportunities to demonstrate familiarity with minute details of the object of their fandom, thereby enhancing their status in the fan community, and also for the fan too more deeply embody his favourite character. In collaboration, the photographer and cosplayer work to ‘erase difference’ between the posed and original scene [4].

The desire to recreate perhaps stems from the origins of cosplay. Nicolle Lamerichs identifies it as a convergence of 1960s/70s Sci-fi fandom practices and ‘the tradition of Renaissance fairs and historical reenactment, as well as later practices such as live-action role-playing’ [5]. In all of these related practices, participation is a combination of costume and action, in which participants aim to remain ‘in character’.

Even when not directly replicating a source text, cosplayers can continue to play their role, inventing new narratives that are in-keeping with their chosen character's personality.

Even when not directly replicating a frame from a film or comic, cosplayers can continue to play their role, inventing new narratives that are in-keeping with their chosen character’s personality.

References:
[1] McCudden, Michelle, Degrees of Fandom: Authenticity and Hierarchy in the Age of Media Covergence, PhD thesis, University of Kansas, 2011, p. 2.
[2] Rauch, Eron, and Bolton, Christopher, ‘A Cosplay Photography Sampler’, Mechademia 5, 2010, pp. 176-190, p. 176, doi: 10.1353/mec.2010.0027
[3] Ibid.
[4] Jenkins, Henry, Textual Poachers: Television Fans and Participatory Culture, New York: Routledge, 1992, as cited in Josh, Stenger, ‘The Clothes Make the Fan: Fashion and Online Fandom when Buffy the Vampire Slayer Goes to eBay’, Cinema Journal, Vol. 45, No. 4 (Summer 2006), pp. 26-44
[5] Lamerichs, Nicolle, ‘Stranger than fiction: Fan identity in Cosplay’, Transformative Works and Cultures, Vol. 7, 2011, p. 2, doi:10.3983/twc.2011.0246

Images:
Black Widow cosplayer: http://geekxgirls.com/images/blackwidow2/blackwidow_cosplay_01.jpg
Supermen (left to right): http://www.fortressofbaileytude.com/supermanpodcastnetwork/?p=3197 ; http://www.organiconcrete.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/superman-alex-ross-2.jpg ; http://www.acparadise.com/ace/picview.php?p=s3422_355042&s=751#.UWW8K473C_E ; http://www.acparadise.com/ace/picview.php?p=s4515_667846&s=751#.UWW5rY73C_E
Superman v. Scoprion cosplay: http://cosplayquest.deviantart.com/art/Cosplay-Scorpion-and-Superman-293912338

The Masculinisation of Dressing Up

Perhaps because it is seen as an extension of the frivolities and vanity of fashion, or perhaps because it is associated with children, dressing-up is a niche activity for men. Very few adult men engage in dressing-up, even on sanctioned occasions such as Halloween. However, a new generation of men are becoming more engaged with costume. ‘Costume play’ is seeing an increase in popularity, largely in the virtual world.

In multiplayer online games (RPGs such as World of Warcraft) the dressing and preparation of the avatar is a significant part of the player’s gaming experience. Janine Fron et. al observe that male gamers devote a lot of time and effort into developing their costume, justified by their use of terminology such as ‘gear’ rather than ‘costume’. Such terminology suggests that the avatar’s wardrobe is primarily a matter of function rather than style. Moreover, it is quantifiable. One choice of armour may offer more effective defence than another, enabling players to “treat the costume as a statistic more than a decoration or form of personal expression”[1].

dungeontwofivethunders

These gaming experiences “may also serve as an entry-point for men into dress-up, for whom its convergence with technology may dispel some of its more feminine  connotations”[2]. If costume can be justified as a functional object, particularly in that is associated with the very masculine act of combat, it can be distanced from feminine acts of vanity, and childish acts of play.

The notion of costume as functional object has also made the practice of dressing-up more acceptable to mainstream cinema audiences. Contemporary audiences find that the lycra unitard of Adam West’s TV Batman lacks masculinity (to the extent that articles point to homosexual overtones)[3]. Christopher Nolan took great pains to justify Bruce Wayne’s costume in his more recent cinema incarnation. The Dark Knight (2008) depicts the Batman costume as “pseudo-utilitarian”[4]. Lucius Fox, Batman’s equivalent to Bond’s ‘Q’, is employed in technical development. His role as innovator and curator of Wayne Enterprises’ vast collection of military technologies ensures the feasibility of an endless supply of new gadgets, many of which form part of the costume.

The Dark Knight Rises

In the real-world too, association with battle gives dressing up a masculine purpose. Battle re-enactment provides men with the freedom to dress-up, combined with the restrictions imposed by authenticity[5]. Such strictly regulated scenarios avoid the free improvisation of childsplay. There are sets of rules governing how the costume may be worn, dictated by the demand for historical accuracy. The act of dressing-up takes on mature and masculine associations with war and rule-making.

battle reenactment

References:
[1] Fron, Janine, Fullerton, Tracy, Ford Morie, Jaquelyn, and Pearce, Celia, Playing Dress-Up: Costumes, roleplay and imagination, paper presented at Philosophy of Computer Games’, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, 24-27 January 2004, http://egg.lmc.gatech.edu/publications/LudicaDress_Up.pdf (accessed 10 February 2013)
[2] Ibid.
[3] Daniels, Les, Batman: The Complete History. Chronicle Books, 1999, p. 84.
[4] Chabon, Michael, ‘Secret Skin: An Essay in Unitard Theory,’ in Superheroes: Fashion and Fantasy, New York: Yale University Press, and the Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2010, p.18.
[5] Fron et al., Op. Cit.

Images:
World of Warcraft armour: http://www.blogcdn.com/wow.joystiq.com/media/2010/09/dungeontwofivethunders.jpg
Batman costume from The Dark Knight Rises: http://clothesonfilm.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/The-Dark-Knight-Rises_Christian-Bale-suit-light-mid_Image-credit-Warner-Bros.-Pictures-001.jpg
Battle re-enactment: http://cache.boston.com/bonzai-fba/Globe_Photo/2008/04/21/1208780080_9801-1.jpg

Bat costumes – How derivative is Batman’s suit?

I do not intend to accuse anyone of plagiarism. However, I do feel that it is necessary to observe the similarities between this Victorian fancy dress costume (c. 1887), and the various versions of Batman’s suit.

tumblr_m5j1psCOON1qa70eyo2_500Batman-Adam-West-batman-5193248-1024-768

This costume, produced more than 50 years before the first appearance of ‘The Batman’, shares much in common with the Victorian costume. The position of the cape, and arguably even the headpiece with protruding ears, are intuitive. It would seem reasonable for any designer to independently interpret the bat as a costume with these features. The chest insignia, however, bears more similarity than coincidence could excuse. Both of these costumes bear a small, reductionist silhouette of a bat displayed on the chest.

When Bob Kane created Batman, it is likely that he would have been inspired in-part by Superman, who had appeared a year earlier. Superman’s costumes shared equivalent elements, including the cape and chest insignia. It therefore seems reasonable to assume that the Batman costume is an amalgamation of drawings of Superman and observations of bats.

Even if Kane’s costume design was directly informed by previously existing fancy-dress costumes, we must consider that Kane operated in pop culture, where ownership is fluid. Originality is about context and meaning, and less about appearance. If a costume was copied, at least it was recontextualised. In Detective comics, it acquired new audiences, and new meaning.

Images:
Victorian Bat Costume: http://mamamuerte.tumblr.com/post/25012162526/vintagegal-victorian-bat-costume-based-on
Batman: http://images2.fanpop.com/images/photos/5100000/Batman-Adam-West-batman-5193248-1024-768.jpg