Clowns and Class

I recently attended the Subverting Fashion conference at St. Mary’s University, and saw a brilliant and entertaining range of papers that will inform my posts for the rest of the summer. I will start with Yvonne Augustin’s discussion of clown costume, with particular emphasis … Continue reading

Spider-Man Sews: How the hyper-masculine superhero emerges from the feminine and domestic act of costuming

Superheroes represent a hyper-masculinised stereotype. They are characterised by masculine traits of physical strength and muscular physiques, along with aggressive tendencies (manifested in their physical, combative engagement with villains). An equally important aspect of the superhero genre is the costume. … Continue reading

Cosplay, Spectacle and Spectatorship

The numerous cosplay photography archives that litter the web have provided the world with images of some fantastic costumes. ‘Participatory fandom’ is becoming increasingly mainstream [1], and nowhere is fandom more overtly expressed than in costume.

These online archives are not only evidence of the act of costuming, but also of the importance of recording costume events. Attendees at events like Comic Con may take the role of cosplayer or spectator, and both are equally as important to the fan community. Rauch and Bolton argues that ‘the cosplayer is really only half the equation: the other half is the cameraman (or woman), and there is a strong sense that the photograph is the privileged end product of the entire enterprise’ [2]. The spectator is a voyeur, and a record-keeper, enjoying and preserving the spectacle.

As in fashion photography, there is an ‘underlying assumption that the clothes exist to be photographed as much as to be worn’ [3]. Cosplayers have invested time, money and effort on their costumes, and are keen to preserve this demonstration of their devotion to a source text.

A cosplayer dressed as Black Widow poses for the camera.

A cosplayer dressed as Black Widow poses for the camera.

The term ‘cosplay’ does not solely refer to the wearing of a costume. The ‘costume’ is only one half of the story – ‘play’ (or ‘role-play’) being the other. Photographs can preserve both the costume and the role-play, often in the form of a complete recreation of a frame from a comic or film.  This act becomes a collaboration between cosplayer and photographer, as they stage a replica of a fictional scene.

superman shirt cosplay

Cosplayers pose ‘in character’, recreating a narrative from source texts. This demonstration of fandom is a collaboration between photographer and cosplayer, who must both have accurate knowledge of the source text to achieve authenticity.

Posing for pictures in this way grants fans closer involvement with the source text. It provides opportunities to demonstrate familiarity with minute details of the object of their fandom, thereby enhancing their status in the fan community, and also for the fan too more deeply embody his favourite character. In collaboration, the photographer and cosplayer work to ‘erase difference’ between the posed and original scene [4].

The desire to recreate perhaps stems from the origins of cosplay. Nicolle Lamerichs identifies it as a convergence of 1960s/70s Sci-fi fandom practices and ‘the tradition of Renaissance fairs and historical reenactment, as well as later practices such as live-action role-playing’ [5]. In all of these related practices, participation is a combination of costume and action, in which participants aim to remain ‘in character’.

Even when not directly replicating a source text, cosplayers can continue to play their role, inventing new narratives that are in-keeping with their chosen character's personality.

Even when not directly replicating a frame from a film or comic, cosplayers can continue to play their role, inventing new narratives that are in-keeping with their chosen character’s personality.

References:
[1] McCudden, Michelle, Degrees of Fandom: Authenticity and Hierarchy in the Age of Media Covergence, PhD thesis, University of Kansas, 2011, p. 2.
[2] Rauch, Eron, and Bolton, Christopher, ‘A Cosplay Photography Sampler’, Mechademia 5, 2010, pp. 176-190, p. 176, doi: 10.1353/mec.2010.0027
[3] Ibid.
[4] Jenkins, Henry, Textual Poachers: Television Fans and Participatory Culture, New York: Routledge, 1992, as cited in Josh, Stenger, ‘The Clothes Make the Fan: Fashion and Online Fandom when Buffy the Vampire Slayer Goes to eBay’, Cinema Journal, Vol. 45, No. 4 (Summer 2006), pp. 26-44
[5] Lamerichs, Nicolle, ‘Stranger than fiction: Fan identity in Cosplay’, Transformative Works and Cultures, Vol. 7, 2011, p. 2, doi:10.3983/twc.2011.0246

Images:
Black Widow cosplayer: http://geekxgirls.com/images/blackwidow2/blackwidow_cosplay_01.jpg
Supermen (left to right): http://www.fortressofbaileytude.com/supermanpodcastnetwork/?p=3197 ; http://www.organiconcrete.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/superman-alex-ross-2.jpg ; http://www.acparadise.com/ace/picview.php?p=s3422_355042&s=751#.UWW8K473C_E ; http://www.acparadise.com/ace/picview.php?p=s4515_667846&s=751#.UWW5rY73C_E
Superman v. Scoprion cosplay: http://cosplayquest.deviantart.com/art/Cosplay-Scorpion-and-Superman-293912338

Bat costumes – How derivative is Batman’s suit?

I do not intend to accuse anyone of plagiarism. However, I do feel that it is necessary to observe the similarities between this Victorian fancy dress costume (c. 1887), and the various versions of Batman’s suit.

tumblr_m5j1psCOON1qa70eyo2_500Batman-Adam-West-batman-5193248-1024-768

This costume, produced more than 50 years before the first appearance of ‘The Batman’, shares much in common with the Victorian costume. The position of the cape, and arguably even the headpiece with protruding ears, are intuitive. It would seem reasonable for any designer to independently interpret the bat as a costume with these features. The chest insignia, however, bears more similarity than coincidence could excuse. Both of these costumes bear a small, reductionist silhouette of a bat displayed on the chest.

When Bob Kane created Batman, it is likely that he would have been inspired in-part by Superman, who had appeared a year earlier. Superman’s costumes shared equivalent elements, including the cape and chest insignia. It therefore seems reasonable to assume that the Batman costume is an amalgamation of drawings of Superman and observations of bats.

Even if Kane’s costume design was directly informed by previously existing fancy-dress costumes, we must consider that Kane operated in pop culture, where ownership is fluid. Originality is about context and meaning, and less about appearance. If a costume was copied, at least it was recontextualised. In Detective comics, it acquired new audiences, and new meaning.

Images:
Victorian Bat Costume: http://mamamuerte.tumblr.com/post/25012162526/vintagegal-victorian-bat-costume-based-on
Batman: http://images2.fanpop.com/images/photos/5100000/Batman-Adam-West-batman-5193248-1024-768.jpg